The cause of the war of 1857 has to be searched not in the superficial causes, but the deep-rooted human love for liberty and self rule. Muslims had ruled the sub-continent for centuries and now hated to be ruled by and alien nation. Thus the incident of 1857 has to be viewed as the last ditch battle on the part of Muslims and also other nations of the sub-continent, for the preservation of liberty.
The war of Independence 1857 was precipitated by as simple incident. It was believed that cartridges made by the British were covered with the fat of pigs and cows. The cartridges were to be bitten by mouth before use. This injures the religious feeling of both Hindus and Muslims. Hence they refused to use them. At this, many of the soldiers were beaten and imprisoned and their leaders hanged. This led to open rebellion which spread to the shoal of sub-continent. But the British forces had already won a big territory especially the one lying between Lahore and Delhi.
At the end of the war of Independence 1857 in which British had come out successful, they wanted to destroy the last symbol of unity among Muslims. For this purpose, they attacked the Red Fort and caught Kind Bahadur Shah, hiding in the Humayun’s Tomb. Major Hudson killed Bahadur Shah’s sons and presented their heads to him on a plate. General Nicholson ordered a general massacre of the native people and burnet their homes. Bahadur Shah died in exile Rangoon.
The British succeeded in the suppressing the native people and became masters. India was brought under the British Crown. At the end of the war, the entire blame of uprising was put on the Muslims and Hindus assured the British of their loyalty and continued faithfulness. As the result of Hindu-British collusion, Muslims were subjected to great hardships. The doors of government services, trade and business were closed for the Muslims. They were forced to accept the petty jobs as peasants, labourers, water-carriers, fillers of inkpots and artisans etc.
The Muslim did not rest after the defeat in the war of Independence 1857. They could not be cowed down by the atrocities commitment on them by the British and Hindus. Rather, they continued their struggle more vigorously, which culminated in the creation of Pakistan in August 1947.